To start off our tutorial series, we will first learn about basic data types in Python.

Strings – Commonly used to represent text, but numbers can be strings as well.

Integers – If you remembered learning E Maths in secondary school, integers are just whole numbers.

Floats – Other real numbers which have demical places are floats. Do note that 3.0 is considered a float, while 3 is an integer.

# Assigning strings to variables

In Python, assigning means storing or setting a value to a variable. For example, when I say “assign ‘apple’ to x”, I would store the string ‘apple’ to x, and x will return the string ‘apple’. In IDLE, you have to type print(x) to show an output in the complier.

Whenever you assign a string to a variable, do remember to include double apostrophes around your text!

```
x = "hello world!"
print(x)
```

# Assigning integers/floats to variables

Similarly, we can assign integers and floats to variables in Python. To assign an integer or a float, we do not include double apostrophes. This differentiates it from assigning strings.

```
# assigning an integer
a = 1
print(a)
```

```
# assigning a string
b = "1"
print(b)
```

```
# assigning a float
c = 1.0
print(c)
```

# Checking the type of a variable

To check the type of a variable, we will use the function type(). You will learn more about functions in Chapter 6.

```
# Using type() function
print(type(a))
print(type(b))
print(type(c))
```

# Boolean

Booleans are used to represent truth values in Python. They are either be True or False. You can assign a Boolean to a variable, but they are more commonly used as the output of logical (boolean) operations. Booleans are important as they can be used to perform filtering operations on data structures.

# Comparison Operations

Comparison operations are a type of logical operations. The most commonly used ones are >, <=, =<, < and ==. In Python, the operator ‘==’ means equal to in Mathematics, as ‘=’ is reserved for assigning variables.

```
a = 10
b = 15
print(a > b)
```

```
c = 20
d = 20
print(c == d)
```

# Logical Operations

We can also check multiple comparison statements using ‘and’ and ‘or’.

```
print(a > b and c == d)
```

```
print(a > b or c == d)
```

The Boolean True has a value of 1 while False has a value of 0. You can also compare between booleans.

```
x = True
y = False
```

```
# Checking the type of variables x and y
print(type(x))
print(type(y))
```

```
print(x == 1)
```

```
print(y == 0)
```

```
print(x==y)
```

Note that when assigning booleans to variables, True or False need to be capitalised.

```
x = true
y = false
```